Since osteoarthritis affects the joints exposed to the highest stress (knees, elbows, and hips), this condition is considered less of a disease and is rather regarded as a result of “wear and tear”. Most fibrous tissues contain collagen type I, which forms large fibers with a wavy ‘crimped’ structure; however, this type of collagen is only found in cartilage in the outer layers of the perichondrium and in white fibrocartilage. Cartilage has limited reparative capacities for a number of reasons: Therefore, the standard treatments often involve total joint replacements (arthroplasty) or clever bioengineering techniques to regenerate articular cartilage through scaffolding and stem cell engineering. This basal layer also contains the highest concentration of proteoglycans, and round chondrocytes in this layer are arranged in columns. When a chondroblast divides, its descendants temporarily occupy the same chondroitin. Articular cartilage functions as a shock absorber and also reduces friction between bones where they meet at joints. An essential feature of the cartilage is that it has no blood vessels. Cartilage – Introduction, Structure, Formation And Types Of Cartilage, Collagen type II is found in the notochord, the nucleus pulposus of an intervertebral disc, the vitreous body. Benign tumors are called chondromas, and the malignant tumors are called chondrosarcomas. There are no blood vessels in cartilage to supply the chondrocytes with nutrients. The layers of articular cartilage are defined by zones. Chondrogenesis is the process by which cartilage is formed from condensed mesenchymal cells expressing collagen I, III and V. This process also involves differentiation of chondroprogenitor cells secreting molecules (aggrecan and type II, IX and XI collagen) that form the extracellular matrix. At some sites, continued secretion of matrix separates the cells, producing typical hyaline cartilage. This continuing process adds additional surface, while the entrapped cells participate in interstitial growth. From the cartilaginous tissue a kind of hard semi-transparent organic substance is secreted which is known as *Chondrin*. Cartilage is a robust and viscoelastic connective tissue that can be found in joints between bones, the rib cage, intervertebral discs, the ear, and the nose. Other medications aim to specifically inhibit inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, which helps drive inflammation in RA. There are … Treatment often involves various anti-inflammatory medications, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like aspirin or ibuprofen, or other COX inhibitors for symptomatic relief. It is composed of a dense network of collagen fibers embedded in a gelatinous ground substance. Skeletal system – Introduction & functions of skeletal system. Cartilage is a non-vascular type of supporting connective tissue that is found throughout the body . While more rigid and less flexible than muscle, cartilage is not as stiff as bone. Skeletal system – Introduction & functions of the skeletal system, KIDNEYS – Location, Size, Structure, Function and Organs Associated with kidneys, Microscopic Structure Of Skeleton Muscles, Sensory System-Introduction, Organs and Functions, The Urinary System-Introduction,Functions and Anatomy, Nervous system-Introduction, Types, and Function, Human Reproductive system- Formation of Gametes, Organs Overview and Function, Respiratory System – Introduction, Parts & Functions, Muscular system – Types of muscles, characteristics & functions. Read more. Chondrocytes are responsible for producing large quantities of collagenous extracellular matrix and ground substance that is rich in proteoglycans and elastin fibers. • The main cell types in cartilage are chondrocytes, the ground substance is chondroitin sulfate, and the fibrous sheath is called perichondrium. Consequently, the ECM functions to respond to the tensile, shear, and compressive forces that are experienced by cartilage during mechanical use such as normal gait or weight-bearing movements. Cartilage, connective tissue forming the mammalian embryonic skeleton prior to bone formation and persisting in parts of the human skeleton into adulthood. The remodeling of cartilage is predominantly affected by changes and rearrangements of the collagen matrix, which responds to tensile and compressive forces experienced by the cartilage. In the embryo , it provides support and is a precursor to bone . This type of cartilage contains elastic fiber networks and collagen fibers. Cartilage is not hard just like bone. When an embryo is developing, cartilage is the precursor to bone. 1. Elastic Cartilage – This type of cartilage provides higher flexibility and thus known as elastic cartilage. Formed by the process of chondrogenesis, the resulting chondrocytes are capable of producing large amounts of collagenous extracellular matrix and ground substance, which together form cartilage itself. They give elastic cartilage great flexibility so it can withstand repeated bending. The function of articular cartilage is dependent on the molecular composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM), which consists mainly of proteoglycans and collagen. It is harder and stronger than prior tissue types. 2. Starting from the subchondral bone, there is a tidemark that is deep to the basal layer and separates true articular cartilage from the deeper cartilage, which is a remnant of cartilage anlage from longitudinal growth during childhood. Additionally, a glycoprotein known as lubricin that is abundant in the superficial layer of cartilage and synovial fluid plays a major role in bio-lubrication and wear protection of cartilage. Each type has varying amounts of elastin and collagen. Bone tissue Each cell differentiates into a chondroblast as it secretes a basophilic halo of the matrix, Finally, there is most superficial layer, also known as the tangential zone. Kenhub. Treatment involves arthroplasty and chondroitin sulfate or glucosamine sulfate supplements. There are 3 types of cartilage, namely Fibrocartilage, Hyaline and elastic cartilage. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Mesenchymal cells proliferate and become tightly packed; the shape of their condensation foreshadows that of the future cartilage. Chondrocytes lie between the fibers. Cartilage function is more than structural, and has different functions in the life cycle. 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